Niki South   Student number: 514516


Where I stand Part 1 (pre shooting)

I am comfortable at this stage with most of Cartier Bresson’s concepts and assertions, however there are many who are more critical. O’ Hagen (2014) questions why although “The Decisive Moment” (Cartier Bresson, 1952) changed photography forever, it has been republished and asserts that it cements out of date ideas. Certainly Cartier Bresson stressed the importance of composition, and liked to instinctively fix a geometric pattern into which to fix a subject. O’Hagen suggests that “The idea that he lay in wait for someone to walk into a precomposed frame may explain his extraordinary hit rate” (2014). He weighs this against the photographical methods of Garry Winogrand or Joel Meyerowitz, who he suggests pounded the streets in search of the right convergence of light, action and expression rather than patterns and geometry and others like Frank and Eggleston signalled the future, and considers that the book is now a historical artefact:

“It cements an idea of photography that is no longer current but continues to exist as an unquestioned yardstick in the public eye: black and white, acutely observational, meticulously composed, charming. Colour and conceptualism may as well not have happened, so enduring is this model of photography outside the world of contemporary photography itself.” (O’Hagen, 2014)

In an essay in the London Review of Books (2013), Gaby Wood wrote, “The reason his photographs often feel numbly impersonal now is not just that they are familiar. It’s that they’re so coolly composed, so infernally correct that there’s nothing raw about them, and you find yourself thinking: would it not be more interesting if his moments were a little less decisive?”

Having immersed myself in the work, methods and thinking of Henri Cartier Bresson during these exercises and research I feel that I need to step back and see how the experience of shooting the assignment affects my stance on these things. I intend to enter into the spirit of Henri Cartier for the assignment:

“To photograph is to hold one’s breath, when all faculties converge to capture fleeting reality. It’s at that precise moment that mastering an image becomes a great physical and intellectual joy.” (Cartier Bresson, 1999).

Where I stand Part 2 (post assignment):

Having scouted and shot on the streets I now feel better placed to give my view on the decisive moment. I set out with a plan to shoot geometric patterns with a subject completing them. Initially looking for compositions like Cartier Bresson’s there was something lacking, however as I worked my way into the shooting, outcomes seemed to improve. Probably my “looking” improved so that I was able to capture more interesting moments; I whole heartedly agree that successful photography is “a spontaneous impulse coming from an ever attentive eye which captures the moment and its eternity(Cartier-Bresson, 1952).

What I did find was that whilst some of my shoots were fairly coolly composed, my most effective shoots were more spontaneous and decisive. Certainly my experience taught me that most often my first shot was the best, even after spending time trying to improve on an image and that observation and fast reactions are vital to capture decisive moments as “Photographers deal in things which are continually vanishing and when they have vanished there is no contrivance on earth which can make them come back again” (Cartier Bresson, 1952). I’m not sure as Gaby Wood (O’Hagan, 2014) suggests, that Cartier Bresson did “coolly compose” them, but most likely that he just had a good eye and instinct.

Some may now see his images as overly correct, not raw enough or passé, but however you view his images there is no doubt in my mind that he was a master of the decisive moment which is a combination of observation, readiness, instinctive composition and technical skill. In no way do I believe that the decisive moment belongs to another photographic time, but that it is essential to successful photography today. It may be that everyone’s decisive moment is different, depending on what they are looking for, but “ that infinitely small and unique moment in time which cannot be repeated” (Zouhairghazzi, 2004) is critical to effective images.


Cartier Bresson, H (1952). The Decisive Moment. New York. Simon and Schuster.

Cartier Bresson, H (1999). The Mind’s Eye: Writings on Photography and Photographers.  New York. Aperture.

O’Hagan, S (2014). Cartier-Bresson’s classic is back – but his Decisive Moment has passed. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/dec/23/henri-cartier-bresson-the-decisive-moment-reissued-photography?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other : (accessed 25.2.16).

Zouhairghazzi (2004). The indecisiveness of the decisive moment. http://zouhairghazzal.com/photos/aleppo/cartier-bresson.htm (accessed 26.2.16).




Demonstration of technical and visual skills:

  • This assignment drew on my visual awareness which I think is quite strong, but even so I was aware during the assignment how much further my observational skills deepened.
  • I used my instinctive compositional skills but learnt much at a mental level about what it is that completes a composition.
  • I used a lens that I had not used before which I had inherited (17-85mm) and broadened my tool kit in the future, I can be over reliant on my telephoto (16-300mm) and wide angle lens as I am so familiar with them.
  • I found it challenging on shutter speed where I predominantly use aperture priority; this maybe why I moved away from closer shots of people as I would have wanted to use depth of field to isolate subjects and moments. I did however learn how to use shutter speed to freeze at the optimum level in the assignment and to blur in the exercises.
  • I only used post production to clean up one image (because of shadows) I did reshoot on a different day to avoid this however I felt that the original image was the most decisive so used that one.

Quality of outcome:

  • I was much more confident during the editing process; I did set myself criteria to work against when choosing images, but alongside this I used my instinct about what was effective/interesting and found that my link for the series evolved spontaneously rather than being forced and that this was more satisfying.
  • I am sure the printing could be improved on, I used a professional laboratory and I will trial other printers in the future to compare.
  • I am aware that I have one portrait shot amongst 6 landscape shots, but the images were chosen for their individual strengths and the order that I have presented them in would be their “hanging” sequence.
  • I hope that I have presented and communicated my ideas effectively in my learning log and essay.

Demonstration of creativity:

  • During the exercise I was experimentally creative, especially in project 2 A durational space. I used my imagination alongside observation when I was shooting. I believe that it was my imagination and sideways thinking that led me to bringing environments and people together to create decisive moments.
  • I look forward to being more technically experimental in future assignments.


  • It was different for me to have a context which evolved during the shooting, this took me out of my comfort zone and was challenging but ultimately enjoyable.
  • I needed to do a lot of reflection to get myself into “the decisive moment” but particularly to discover what it meant to me.
  • I learnt  that a decisive moment can be spontaneously captured or patiently hunted, however I also learnt that the first shot, the first angle, the first idea is usually the best one – to be instinctive.
  • I applied my learning from the reading and exercises of Part three.
  • I realise the importance of continuing to research and visit exhibitions to broaden my knowledge, as I know I am at the tip of the iceberg and how useful knowledge is.


Assignment Three

1st thoughts: To me “The decisive moment” instantly screamed street photography, however having used this predominantly for my Crowds assignment I tried at first to think outside of the box. I toyed and tested the idea of sports photography; I then tested freezing and blurring waves and weather moments. I captured some good images but though some were beautiful, they seemed one dimensional and were not images that lingered in my mind later. Ultimately I felt that I needed to work with human subjects as a part of a composition and therefore returned to street photography.

Preparations: This mind map outlines my initial thoughts about using street photography as a medium for this assignment:

planning mind map

I decided that presenting the work in monochrome would fit in with the spirit of the Cartier Bresson “Decisive moment” and give me a noticeable difference and separation from the colourful street photography and a new challenge.

The first shoot: I set out on my first serious shoot with a variety of ideas, but with the intent to be spontaneous and instinctive to see what developed. I headed to various locations in London as from my “test” shoots locally I knew that I would need a higher footfall to increase my chances of capturing something interesting. I found as the day wore on my “looking” improved. I pursued two ideas initially; firstly composing a partially geometrically pleasing shot and waiting for a subject enter to complete it, secondly watching for interesting gestures or behaviours (especially people looking lost). Reviewing the images, few of my earliest attempts of the first group were particularly pleasing, though I had caught some interesting gesture images. However shooting instinctively as the day wore on I the images that had the most impact had interesting backgrounds (street art, graffiti, signage, pattern and colour) with a human subject that added to this in a significant way. Some of these were caught quickly and spontaneously (smoking), while for some I had to wait patientlyto combine all the necessary elements together (never grow up).

The second shoot: Having reviewed the previous shoot I was focused on what I needed to complete the series: interesting backgrounds with people to complete/enhance the composition. Although I had almost enough images already for the assignment. I needed to be certain that I had got the best that I could, by revisiting some of the locations could I improve on them? I resolved to remain alert for good “gesture” shots and any interesting accidental catches, keeping my options open just in case I changed track again.

Reflections post shooting: I was able to capture a few more good images, but the 1st shoot had been by far the best.

Post shoot mind map.JPG

This mind map shows my editing criteria:

Editing mind map

After the 1st shoot I eliminated my concept of “lost people” which were not effective and thought that I would eliminate gestures also, although I had a few good images:

_MG_1495 discard                                     _MG_1561 discard.jpg

I chose the locations that had brought the best compositions and then concentrated on choosing the best image for each. My options were converse to other assignments, as this time I had a narrow number of locations but a wider number of images at each location to choose from. This enable me to reduce my possible images to eight locations. These are the last 4 images that I dismissed:

_MG_2063 almost.jpg      _MG_2353 Almost.jpg

_MG_2144 Almost.jpg   _MG_2440 almost.jpg

When editing I strove for “beauty in a fragment of time”, a fleeting precise organisation of form, as well as images that linger, engage the viewer or poses questions. I additionally looked for:

  • Images with ambiguity or open to interpretation by the viewer.
  • Juxtaposition.
  • A graphic and/or visual message.
  • Contrast
  • A synergistic relationship between an environment and a person.

The theme for the series emerged: Images where the relationship between the environment and person create a decisive moment.




I had already researched some street photographers for Assignment 2, in particular Alex Webb, Garry Winogrand and William Klein, as well as reading tips from Eric Kim (see link). I have researched Henri Cartier Bresson and Robert Frank during this project’s exercises and additionally investigated these photographer’s to further broaden my view.

Additional research in preparation for assignment 3 

Robert Doisneau

A French humanistic photo journalist (1912-1993) who was a “deft and amusing observer of the minor aspects of life and culture which define frenchness” (Golden 2003, p 62). He considered that “The marvels of daily life are so exciting; no movie director can arrange the unexpected that you find in the street (Pollack 1977, p 144). His work bridges documentary and art. He was innovative and combined modernism, surrealism and narrative in his photographs.

In 1950 Doisneau created his most recognizable work for Life magazine – Le baiser de l’hôtel de ville (Kiss by the Hôtel de Ville), a photograph of a couple kissing in the Paris streets. Apparently he never liked the photograph, perhaps because he had posed it. More typical Doisneau images of the 1950s are unposed, but still carefully stalked and framed (children, prostitutes or market porters, and other street-dwellers in the unfashionable, parts of Paris). “He would often find a location, or a “stage” as he called it, and lie in wait for many hours for the right action or characters to arrive.” (Lichfield, 2010).  He has also been described as a photographer “with an eye on the world and a love for others” (Clark 2016).

Doisneau   Doisneau 2  Elliot Erwitt 3

Elliot Erwitt

A French documentary/commercial photographer with a sense of humour, who has captured some of the defining images of the 20th century. His images may sometimes look simple but on closer inspection are not. A “gently mocking and probing eye that has always preferred to look at life’s absurdities rather than its ills” (Golden 2003, p 74). He has been called a purveyor of the “non-photograph” and “combines a deceptively casual approach with an unrivalled, sometimes gloriously silly, visual sense of wit. (O’ Mahony 2003).

He has a masterful technique although believes that the instinct that creates great photography is casual and uncontrollable. He is widely considered a ‘master’ of the indecisive moment, as he captures the irony and absurd of daily life.

Elliot Erwitt 2   Elliot Erwitt Elliot Erwitt 3

Joel Meyerowitz

An award-winning New York photographer, who is a “street photographer” in the tradition of Henri Cartier-Bresson and Robert Frank, although now workings exclusively in colour. He was instrumental in changing the attitude toward the use of colour photograph. Speaking to Sean O’ Hagen he said “A lot of what I am looking for is a moment of astonishment,” (Guardian 2012). He believes in “recognition and the power of the frame to put disparate, unrelated things together” (Kim). Meyerowitz often uses juxtaposition or constructs relationships between subjects.

Meyerowitz 1   Meyerowitz 2   meyerowitz 3


Clark, D (2016) Diverse Doisneau in Amateur Photographer 18.14.16p 30-31.

Golden, R (2003) Masters of Photography. 3rd Ed. London. Goodman.

Kim, E (unknown) 82 lessons from the masters of street photography. E book.

Lichfield, J (2010) Robert Doisneau: A window into the soul of Paris, Independent Sunday 5 December 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/features/robert-doisneau-a-window-into-the-soul-of-paris-2151370.html (accessed 30.1.16)

O’ Hagen, S. (2012) Joel Meyerowitz: ‘brilliant mistakes … amazing accidents’. Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2012/nov/11/joel-meyerowitz-taking-my-time-interview (accessed 30.1.16).



Project 3

Exercise 3.3

Unfortunately as I have not a manual camera I have not been able to complete the 1st exercise, however I have read other’s observations on the exercise.

  1. Find a good viewpoint…..where you can see a wide view or panorama. Start by looking at the things closest to you in the foreground. Then pay attention to the details in the middle distance and, finally, the things towards the horizon. Now try and see the whole landscape together, from the foreground to horizon (you can move your eyes). Include the sky in your observation and try to see the whole visual field together, all in movement (there is always some movement). When you’ve got it, raise your camera and take a picture. Add the picture and a description of the process to your learning log.

The following were shot with aperture priority:

_MG_0692 panorama.jpg               _MG_0694 panorama.jpg

 1/200; f/11; ISO 400; 32mm                                       1/125; f/14; ISO 200; 30mm

With my eyes it was easy to focus 1st on the foreground, then the middle then horizon; however I then found it difficult to refocus on the whole depth. I found it was much easier to do this before focusing on the individual depths of the view. The camera was able to capture the complete depth of the view, although the width of the view that the camera can shot is considerably less than we see with our eyes, even using a wide angle lens. When we look we look in one gaze I think it is impossible to breakdown this coordination into parts and “look” effectively.

In The nature of Photographs (Shore, 2007) a similar exercise is suggested but with an image. It seems that when refocusing on different parts of an image “the direction and speed of your refocusing is not tied to the recession in depictive space” (Shore 2007, p84) but is affected by the flatness of the image. Shore talks about the way that our eyes see a photograph as a mental image and that it is our minds rather than our eyes that changes focus as we move through the image; that the mental level of a photograph “provides a framework for this mental image we construct” (Shore, 2007, p97). He also suggests that when an image is shallow mentally there is only a small sensation of the eye changing focus. I would guess that this is also true with an uncomplicated view and that our perception, experiences and mind can also affect the way we construct the image in a view and focus through it.

References: Shore, S (2007), The nature of photographs. 2nd edition. London. Phaidon


Project 3

Write a personal response to the film in the contextual section of your learning log, taking care to reference properly any quotations you use.

Personal response to the film Henri Cartier-Bresson L’amour tout court “Just Plain Love.” A documentary film, directed by Rafael O’Byrne, 2001.

 It was illuminating to see and hear the photographer that I’ve read and heard so much about. He was not at all as I would have expected. From the first moment the camera rolls there is a warmth mischievousness, and youthfulness (even at 92) in his demeanour. When drawing a friend and asked to flatter, he laughs but continues in his own way. He often laughs at himself. It was revealing to see him reflecting on his life, often with some amusement.

He seemed to enjoy recounting how he pushed the boundaries at home with his left wing Catholic parents, for instance describing how when his mother campaigned to close brothels he told her that many interesting conversations were had there! He shows throughout an unquenchable thirst for freedom. After leaving home for Africa he talks of the time he spent in jail, his body language and slowing of thought suggests that he still recalls these as very challenging times and admits he “always feels like a prisoner on the run.” (Byrne, 2001, part 1).

I was especially interested in his reflections on his many travels and the way that it influenced his work “You don’t have to go far to notice a difference.(Byrne, 2001, part 1).  He speaks intelligently not of the enjoyment of travelling, but of being in and observing a country which he could identify with, “The truth of travelling is not about discovering the new, but about that which will pass and about that which will last. So one can gain a deeper insight than by merely flicking through art books.” (Byrne, 2001, part 4). As a lover of the Far East myself I was particularly interested in the footage of his shots in India, his reminiscing of conversations with Ghandi and his reflections on the impact that Far Eastern religions such as Buddhism had on him as spiritual sciences; it is obvious that he immersed himself in these cultures.

When describing a shot taken of a Greek boy walking on his hands he underlines that this was simply catching the moment, not staged and also expresses the spirit of the moment: happiness, fleeting joyfulness, youth and agility – This is the essence of Henri Cartier- Bresson. This process is underlined when he explains how he took his famous leaping man shot (without seeing through the view finder), “It’s luck that matters…you have to be receptive that’s all.” (Byrne, 2001, part 2). He tells how he works intuitively, is on the look-out and reacts quickly. He talks of form as a priority over light, the divine proportion and geometry but says that he feels this intuitively. I find intriguing as in the preface of The Decisive Moment (Cartier Bresson, 1952) he wrote, “ If a photograph is to communicate its subject in all its intensity, the relationship of form must be vigorously established”; I guess we must take it at face value that he did do this instinctively.

It was also fascinating to hear how he approaches photographing people, “It’s an enquiry…but also it’s a physical embracing of the person. (Byrne, part 2). Throughout the filming he demonstrates empathy and it is obvious that he has formed close emotional bonds in his life; this is particularly evident when discussing his friends, contemporaries and subjects such as sex and love. He maintains that he likes his subjects not to notice him as “if the subject is aware someone is staring at them they will pose, put on a mask and lose spontaneity.(Byrne, 2001, part 5). I was amazed to learn that he even painted the shiny parts of his camera black so it didn’t draw attention. Certainly at a Kabuki actor’s funeral in 1965 he seems to photograph amongst the crowd unnoticed. There is a suggestion that his compassion and empathy helped to render him invisible to his subjects, now I have seen him interviewed I can understand this is probably so.

He is firm in his views; when reviewing a book of his prints is sharply self-critical, whilst when describing photographers is almost scathing at the way that they fail to seek meaning in what they see, “What matters is to look. But people don’t look. Most of them don’t look. They press the button. They identify. But fail to seek the meaning…beyond this or this. Very few do it.” (Byrne, 2001, part 1). When asked “Can one learn to look?” His response “Can one learn to have sex?” (Byrne, 2001, part 4) is typical of his instinctiveness. “I am a visual man. I watch, watch, watch. I understand things through my eyes” (Cartier-Bresson, 1963).

During the film reviewers of his prints, describe the best of his photos as having the same qualities as him “interesting, lively, vivid, sharp not overbearing or heavy”, (Byrne, 2001, part 3); having watched the film I would agree with this analysis of Henri Cartier-Bresson.


O’Byrne, R (2001. )Henri Cartier-Bresson L’amour tout court “Just Plain Love”:

Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6l09YEeEpI&index=1&list=PL707C8F898605E0BF. Accessed 12.2.16- 16.2.16).

Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfwNrPX2pvw. Accessed 12.2.16- 16.2.16).

Part 3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ea3E_8otCME.  Accessed 12.2.16- 16.2.16).

Part 4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBDV26UvaNA&list=PL707C8F898605E0BF&index=4. Accessed 12.2.16- 16.2.16).

Part 5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-rHc2–Mv8. Accessed 12.2.16- 16.2.16).

Cartier Bresson, H. (1952). The Decisive Moment, New York: Simon & Schuster.

Cartier-Bresson, H., (15.3.1963), Life Magazine cited in Cheroux, C. (2008). 1st Edition. London. Thames and Hudson.

Cheroux, C (2008), Henri Cartier- Bresson.1st ed. London. Thames and Hudson.

Golden, R (2013), Masters of Photography. Third edition. London. Goodman.


Exercise 3.2

Using slow shutter speeds, the multiple exposure function, or another technique inspired by the research, try to record the trace of movement within the frame. You can be as experimental as you like. Add a selection of shots together with relevant shooting data and a description of your process to your learning log.

I fancied trying to emulate the long exposures of Michael Wesely but need to capture subjects moving quickly to do so instead of using his technique of exposing over several years. It was a really windy day so I went into the garden to capture plants moving in the wind with long exposures. I set the camera to bulb and used exposures of over 1024 seconds, I tried to time them initially but this proved unsuccessful so I attempted to get the longest exposures as I could by using a small aperture. These were handheld to add to the movement. These two I find quite aesthetically effective.

_MG_9694     _MG_9702.JPG1/1240; f/22; ISO 100; 87mm                             1/1240; f/22; ISO 100; 66mm

With these daffodils I hoped to emulate in a short space of time Michael’s “The life and death of a bouquet of flowers” but in a rooted aspect!_MG_9745.JPG1/1240; f/22; ISO 100; 66mm

Next in a coastal location, I then slowed the shutter on bulb setting further by using an ND 8 stop Filter. Although I used a tripod, it was freezing, my fingers were numb and for some unexplained reason my remote shutter release wouldn’t fire and I therefore may have added some movement to the exposure with my finger on the shutter.  With the sun rising behind me the slow exposure made the image far too dark however I really like the effect and intend using this technique in the future when shooting water in motion. I like the ghostly water set against a backdrop of a dark eerie background.

_MG_06401/1.6; f/40; ISO 100; 200mm

Next I moved indoors with a tripod to capture the movement of a flickering flame; I did add to the natural movement by blowing the flame during the exposure. The remote release worked this time so the only movement was the flame. I don’t find these very effective, probably as only 1 point in the image is showing movement, I feel that they lack rhythm.

_MG_9854        _MG_9855

1/1240; f/5.6; ISO 100; 83mm             1/1240; f/5.6; ISO 100; 83mm

Finally I attempted to shoot some seascapes in the style of Hiroshi Sugimoto.The longer exposure of the first image I find quite effective.

_MG_0709    _MG_9381

1/+1024; f/40; ISO 400; 300mm             1/100; f/13; ISO 400; 300mm

These exercises have certainly expanded my toolkit with additional ways to use long exposures for creative effect, some of which I will pursue later.


Project 2 A durational space

Michael Wesely

Michael Wesely is a German art photographer who is best known for his photos of cities, buildings, landscapes, and still lives of flowers taken with a special ultra-long exposure technique, sometimes of two to three years.(http://petapixel.com/2012/03/16/photographs-captured-over-years-with-an-open-camera-shutter/ accessed 28.1.16).weselyThe life and death of a bouquet of flowers. http://www.slideshare.net/Alanevans25364/in-depth-photographer-wesley

His response to “The decisive Moment” was to turn it around and say “okay, I cannot collect the best moments, or cannot find them in the contact sheets, so I’d better collect millions of moments in one picture” (Open Shutter, Michael Wesley Museum of Modern Art 2004).

In the 1990s, he began using the technique to document urban development over time, he used filters and extremely small apertures to reduce the amount of light entering the film, producing images that capture both space and time. In 2001 he began photographing the Museum of Modern Art’s renovation project, exposing for 34 months, using 8 cameras at various sites around the construction site.

wesley 2

Between 2001 and 2004 over a 13 month period he recorded the rebuilding of Leipziger Platz and Potsdamer Platz in Berlin.

wesley 3He claims that he could take exposures for up to 40 years. http://www.unfinishedman.com/the-long-exposures-of-michael-wesely/, accessed 28.1.16.), although his method is of course secret. Wesely has made exposure the essential concept for his photography and less of a technical matter, whilst most photographers expose for a long enough time to register the image and a short enough time to halt the motion.


I find that his images have a ghostly nature as the long exposure eliminates any evidence of humans being in the shots and yet we know that they must have been in the shots. The transparency of the building also adds to their visual eeriness. In fact whilst a camera would usually record reality of a situation, though possible represented in a variety of ways in many ways the reality in these urban images is partially hidden. Certainly the camera here is creating a psychological dram to me.


Hiroshi Sugimoto

Japanese New York based photographer is known for his minimalistic contemporary series projects, often with blurred out images creating surreal haunting images. One series is minimal stylised seascapes shot with long exposures with blurred horizons down the middle.


His theatre series used different timed exposures, taken with the shutter open for length of the movie, this leads to just white light being captured on the screen and the people do not appear to have been there due to the radiant white light from the screen (www.youtube.com/watch?v=rY3nGoZqw9U accessed 22.1.16.).This is very different to the effects of the long exposures by Michael Wesley, although the reality of the situation is also misrepresented as the time lapse essentially wipes the theatre screen to white space; these images also have a haunted image just as Wesley’s do to me.

sugimoto 2


He also photographed dioramas of stuffed animals and waxworks in museum displays in an illusionist manner. Sugimoto believes that photography is the best medium to make people think about time and period but that it is also young medium, for instance when he uses it to imitate paintings by photographing wax models (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nluiGJ4opt0, Autobiography Hiroshi Sugimoto Part 1, accessed 22.1.15).

Maartin Vanvolsem

He uses a moving camera to capture frames sequentially to build an image up over time, instead of a subject being captured and frozen in a split second. This however produces images that are the result of technology rather than the human eye. These images gain their meaning as the lines change over time because of the moving film and camera, causing sharpness and blurr. In these images the subject is important rather than how it is depicted.vanvolsem

http://kusseneerscom.webhosting.be/portfolio_page/maarten-vanvolsem/ accessed 5.2.16.

Christopher Doyle

Is the Cinematographer who shot the opening scene to Wong Kar-Wais Chungking Express (1994) at 1/8 second employing a “stutter-step effect, most likely by removing every second frame-or even every second or third frame- and duplicating others” (http://thedissolve.com/features/movie-of-the-week/221-how-wong-kar-wai-turned-22-seconds-into-an-eternit/ accessed 5.2.16). This gives usually gives blurred movement and interestingly it is effectively neither slow or fast-motion. Having watched the sequence it is fascinating how the eye does naturally read a sequence of frames as movement.


Francesca Woodman

She took her first self-portrait at 14 and from then until her death at the age of 22 took some 800 photographs using innovative techniques. She frequently used time exposure, which blurred and diffused her figure. She was both presenting and dissembling herself and “she clearly sought to escape the strictures of the single image and still, frozen photographic stasis” (http://www.gerrybadger.com/francesca-woodman/ accessed 5.2.16). Apparently her work derives partially from the seventies American tendency to combine “personalised psychodramas with temporal and spatial displacements of long exposures and blurred movement”. (http://www.gerrybadger.com/francesca-woodman/ accessed 5.2.16), but in simpler terms, yes the shutter is creating psychological drama.


Robert Frank

His work in the book The Americans (1959) is said to have changed the direction of photography and changed many of the rules set out by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Travelling round parts of America he shot 27,000 images and reduced these to 83 for the book. He used a handheld camera with movement and tilt producing grainy blurred images. Many reviews were disparaging, such as Practical Photography who dismissed the book’s “meaningless blur, grain, muddy exposures, drunken horizons and general sloppiness”. (http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/nov/07/robert-frank-americans-photography-influence-shadows  accessed 8.2.16) He preferred to present things as they were rather than romantically and therefore at the time was even accused of being anti-American.



I find some of the photos that he took inside Ford’s River Rouge plant in Dearborn the most interesting, photographs with a grainy blur and this one “ two lines of men at work, blacks and whites side-by-side and facing each other across the assembly line that runs up the middle of the picture” (http://www.npr.org/2009/02/13/100688154/americans-the-book-that-changed-photography accessed 8.2.16).

Frank 2

Of these photographers I have a strong preference for the work of Robert Frank, I intend to research him further and in time would like to try photographing using his technique.